hierarchy

The narrative database

It is almost cliché these days to state that the database is the form of expression of our age. Many have written on this topic, from computer scientists to media theorists, from philosophers to artists. They have examined networks as the means for connecting and accessing related objects from databases, as well as protocol in the structure of the database as undermining the assumed autonomy of the object. In the art world, the separation between content and expression no longer seems controversial—along with protocol, it has become a topic of critique. Yet, despite the growing familiarity with the database, it is perhaps given too much credit as a form of expression. The largest misconception seems to be that the database supplants an author-driven narrative. It is often seen as anti-narrative, anti-hierarchical, when in fact the database itself has inherent narrative qualities.

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Interpretation and information control

Over the years, a wealth of data has become available online. With the accessibility of this raw information comes the incentive to understand its relevance or significance. Beyond making it engaging and interesting, there is, more than ever, a need for providing interpretation and perspective. Fundamentally, interpretation is a form of information control.

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Visualization as navigation / 1 comment

Stamen Design, Digg Labs Big Spy Visualization

Stamen Design, Digg Labs Big Spy Visualization

Following the train of thought from Browsing informal hierarchies, this post investigates visualization as navigation. When can navigation double as visualization and provide the user with visual cues reflecting the organization of content on a web site or another digital media device? Already in use on many web sites, informal hierarchies have the potential to replace the widely used static, tabular navigation and its often arbitrarily determined categories with a more flexible and adaptive device, one which not only is more effective in orienting users within a particular hierarchy, but is also an iconic representation of the web site itself, providing a distinct visual identity which people will recognize.

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Browsing informal hierarchies / 2 comments

Informal or soft hierarchies have become popular mechanisms for data storage and retrieval, as seen in applications such as Flickr, del.icio.us, and others. What differentiates soft from hard hierarchies is the use of overlapping categories, or tags, instead of namespaces. Tags can be used to describe more than one object, and hence they will appear in various contexts (a context consisting of a group of tags).

Tags are used to help find objects which have something in common. They connect to objects, as well as other tags—applications such as del.icio.us surface tags which are used in context of the one which is currently selected. As a filtering and sorting device, they have proven to be exceptionally useful.

The problem with tags is that their usefulness as a browsing device decreases, the higher the number of tagged objects. Browsing, unlike filtering, should not inherently narrow down results, yet it often does. In very large arrays, selecting a single tag will still yield a multitude of results, results which must be browsed linearly—a fairly tedious process in large lists. Typically, results can be narrowed further by incrementally adding tags to filter by. However, apart from pivoting on a single tag, a more effective browsing method might entail pivoting on a group of tags, centered around an object.

Consequently, pivoting on an object would yield a mechanism by which to browse related objects, as connected by their individual tags. For instance, an algorithm would attempt to match all tags of an object. These results would turn up first-degree related objects. Then, it would begin looking incrementally for tags related to one of the pivot tags, by increasing degree of separation. It might systematically look for pivot tags with the least matches, replacing them with second-degree tags with the most matches. Because the the algorithm is exclusionary, it would conceivably lend itself well to browsing large arrays of tagged objects.

How is this different from the Amazon or iTunes ‘related items’ model? The (subtle) difference is navigation. The typical browsing experience starts with a large pool of objects, filters down incrementally to a single object, and then connects back to a pool of related objects. On the other hand, my proposed navigation would remain ‘high-level’—sorting and rearranging objects based on their semantic relatedness. It doesn’t narrow down, but remains open, simply shifting the focus in relation to the pivot object.

As a design construct, this method offers interesting opportunities for visualization, based on the degree of relatedness between objects. It may also have potential for use in operating systems, as a way to browse large collections of data by means of an exploratory, object-centered navigation.

Urban codes and the image of the city

In Celluloid Skyline, James Sanders explores the New York of the movies, and how its portrayal in film influences not only our perception of the city, but ultimately the shape of the city itself. I am interested in this reciprocal relationship, in particular the way in which an idea can influence a physical construct, as it manifests itself in actual, observable patterns.

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